Chapter 10, Note 58 (pages 212 and 275)

Officials from the Tucson Indian Center, San Carlos Apache Nation, Colorado River Indian Tribes, and Tucson MAYO organization (Mexican-Americans, Yaquis and Others), likewise expressed opposition. (p. 212)

Chapter 10, Note 58 . . . for excerpts from these sources on Arizona Native opposition. (p. 275)

 

Resolutions from the aforementioned Intertribal Council of Arizona and Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs were joined by opposition from the Arizona Affiliated Tribes (a group of eight small tribes), the Colorado River Tribes, and the White Mountain and San Carlos Apaches. The Tohono O’Odham (Papago) were largely quiet on the issue and the Hopi were the only tribe to be outspoken in their support. Oddly, Arizona’s largest Native American population, the Navajos, apparently remained silent on the issue. It is possible that, due to their large size, they did not feel that Yaqui recognition would pose a large threat to their funding sources.[1] PYA chairman Raymond Ybarra felt that the Arizona Indian opposition to Yaqui recognition was due to previous Yaqui participation with the Department of Health, Education and Welfare’s Office of Native American Programs (ONAP). At the same time Yaquis received some support from ONAP, other Arizona Indians were denied aid. He explained, “[they] did not get funded by ONAP, so they got disturbed. Their main opposition is because of money. They’re afraid the pie might be split some more.” Ybarra made this statement to the American Indian Press Association. A representative from the Colorado River Indians Tribes explained their view as follows:

“It’s basic we’s [sic] against having people infringe on the funds set aside for Indians. . . . The Intertribal Council of Arizona is set up to be a clearinghouse for some of these programs. The situation is one where the Yaquis are not American Indians – they are ‘Native Americans.’ We don’t question their needs for funds, but there are more programs available to Yaquis than to Indians. There are lots of things we’re ineligible for as Indians. We don’t want them to dip into funds which are already inadequate . . . Everybody feels sorry for the Yaquis. I do too. They are a group which needs assistance, but we have American Indian tribes – particularly small tribes in Arizona – for which the federal govt. has the responsibility to meet their needs, and the government is not meeting those needs.”[2]

Speaking to this concern, Congressman Udall wrote to Anselmo Valencia the following explanation, “I certainly believe that any congressional effort to grant Yaquis access to additional federal programs would be accompanied by vigorous efforts to increase overall funding for such programs in order to insure against dilution of monies available for other groups.”[3] Failure to secure Arizona Indian support was a heavy blow to Valencia’s efforts, but with the continued support of Morris Udall, they forged ahead.[4]

[1] “Yaquis Seek Federal Recognition from Congress,” Qua’Toqti (Oraibi, Arizona), September 18, 1975, 3; and Judy Donovan, “New Pasqua [sic] Yaquis Hope Village Will Become Reservation,” Arizona Daily Star, November 23, 1975.

[2] Richard La Course, American Indian Press Association Reports, Udall Papers, 1975, Udall Papers, UASC, Subgroup 2, Series 3, Box 203 Folder 3.

[3] Morris K. Udall to Anselmo Valencia, November 13, 1975, Udall Papers, UASC, Subgroup 3, Series 1, Box 581 Folder 19. See also See Anthony Drennan, Sr. (Chairman, Colorado River Indian Tribes) to Barry Goldwater, June 23, 1975; Buck Kitcheyan (Tribal Chairman, San Carlos Apache Nation) to Barry Goldwater, July 31, 1975; and Tucson Indian Center to Sandy McNabb (U.S. Department of Labor), September 31, 1975, Personal and Political Papers of Senator Barry Goldwater, FM MSS1, AHF, Series 3, Box 210, Folder 33. Goldwater also received at least one letter in support of the Udall bill, which explained the increased services to Pascua benefited the Yaquis and surrounding white communities. See Arnold Butler, Kenton Vanderpool and Stan Mullen to Barry Goldwater, September 8, 1975, Personal and Political Papers of Senator Barry Goldwater, FM MSS1, AHF, Series 3,  Box 210, Folder 33.

[4] Anselmo Valencia explained the process that led to the 1975 Udall bill in an appeal sent to Arizona tribes. The full text is available in Richard La Course, American Indian Press Association Reports, Udall Papers, 1975,   Udall Papers, UASC, Subgroup 2, Series 3, Box 203 Folder 3.

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